Paul Umina

Director

Bachelor of Science with Honours, PhD Zoology and Genetics

Growing up on a farm meant that Paul’s fascination with the natural world began at a young age and was the driving force behind his decision to study biological sciences. Since completing his PhD in entomology, Paul has spent the last 15 years helping Australian farmers achieve a balance between profitability and environmental sustainability. He does this by developing new ways to combat the insect pests which plague their livelihood.

Paul is passionate about seeing valuable scientific endeavours adopted in the real-world. It was this desire that led Paul to team up with Andrew Weeks to form Cesar in 2007. To this day, Paul works to ensure research findings are communicated and translated into practical outcomes for Australian agriculture.

Paul is an accomplished leader in pest management in Australia and internationally, regularly presenting at conferences, workshops and industry meetings. He is the inaugural chair of the grains National Insecticide Resistance Management (NIRM) committee, and the creator of PestFacts south-eastern, the highly successful newsletter recieved by over 1,500 people working with broadacre crops and pastures.

His achievements in research and communications are well-recognised, with the University of Melbourne awarding Paul a Staff Excellence Award in Engagement (2011) and the Deans Award for Excellence in Engagement (2015). In 2012, he was named the Victorian Young Tall Poppy of the Year.

Away from work, Paul loves nothing more than spending time with family and getting out and about in the great outdoors. Whether that means heading back to the family farm, going hiking, travelling to new places or riding his bike around the foothills of Melbourne.

Arthur A, Maino J, Hoffmann A, Jasper M, Lord A, Micic S, Edwards O, van Rooyen A, Umina P (2021) Learnings from over a decade of pesticide resistance evolution and spread in the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor Tucker. Pest Management Science.

Cheng X, Hoffmann AA, Edwards OR, Umina PA (2021) Fitness costs associated with pyrethroid resistance in Halotydeus destructor Tucker (Acari: Penthaleidae) elucidated through semi-field trials. Journal of Economic Entomology.

Maino JL, Schouten R, Overton K, Day R, Ekesi S, Bett B, Barton M, Gregg PC, Umina PA, Reynolds OL (2021) Regional and seasonal activity predictions for fall armyworm in Australia. Current Research in Insect Science.

Overton K, Hoffmann AA, Reynolds O, Umina PA (2021) Toxicity of insecticides and miticides to natural enemies in Australian grains: a review. Insects 12, 187.

Ward S, Umina P, Macfadyen S, Hoffmann A (2021) Hymenopteran parasitoids of aphid pests in grain production landscapes. Insects 12, 44.

Thia JA, Hoffmann AA, Umina PA (2021) Empowering Australian insecticide resistance research with genetic information: the road ahead. Austral Entomology 60, 147-162.

Binns M, Hoffmann A, van Helden M, Heddle T, Hill M, Macfadyen S, Nash M, Umina P (2021) Lifecycle of the invasive omnivore, Forficula auricularia, in a novel environment. Pest Management Science 77, 1818-1828.

Perry K, McDonald G, Umina P, Lye J, Pirtle E, Baker G, Angel K (2020) Diamondback moth: best management practice guide. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 12.

McDonald G, Umina P, Lye J, Pirtle E, Baker G, Perry K, Angel K (2020) Green peach aphid: best management practice guide. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 16.

McDonald G, Umina P, Lye J, Pirtle E, Baker G, Perry K, Angel K (2020) Redlegged earth mite: best management practice guide. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 16.

Maino JL, Schouten R, Umina PA (2020) Predicting the global invasion of Drosophila suzukii to improve Australian biosecurity preparedness. Journal of Applied Ecology.

Umina PA,  Reidy-Crofts J, Babineau M, Maino J, Edwards E (2020) Susceptibility of the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera, Aphididae), to four insecticides. Austral Entomology 59, 838-844.

Rispe C, Legeai F, Nabity P, Fernández R, Arora AK, Baa-Puyoulet P et al. (2020) The genome sequence of the grape phylloxera provides insights into the evolution, adaptation, and invasion routes of an iconic pest. BMC Biology 18, 90.

Arthur AL, Babineau M, Umina PA (2020) Insecticide responses in the collembola pest, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae), in Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology 113, 1940-1945.

Kirkland L, Maino J, Stuart O, Umina PA (2020) Ontogeny in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) and grain crops interact to exacerbate feeding damage risk. Journal of Applied Entomology 144, 605-615.

Ward S, van Helden M, Heddle T, Ridland P, Pirtle E, Umina PA (2020) Biology, ecology and management of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Australia. Austral Entomology 59, 238-252.

Ridland PM, Umina PA, Pirtle EI, Hoffmann AA (2020) Potential for biological control of the vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae, in Australia with parasitoid wasps. Austral Entomology 59, 16-36.

Yang Q, Umina PA, Rasic G, Bell N, Fang J, Lord A, Hoffmann AA (2020) Origin of resistance to pyrethroids in the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) in Australia: repeated local evolution and migration. Pest Management Science 76, 509-519.

McDonald G, Umina P, Lye J, Maino J, Perry K, Baker G (2019) Insecticide resistance in the southern region: current status, future risk and best management practices. Grains Research and Development Corporation. ISBN: 978-1-921779-84-8. Pp. 34.

Umina PA, Arthur A, Binns M, Maino J (2019) A novel approach to test for neonicotinoid resistance in earth mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology 79, 345-357.

Umina PA (2019) Potential role of seed treatments in the management of emerging arthropod pests of rape crops. Crop and Pasture Science 70, 890-898.

Douglas J, Hoffmann AA, Umina P, Macfadyen S (2019) Factors influencing damage by the Portuguese millipede, Ommatoiulus moreleti (Julida: Julidae), to crop seedlings. Journal of Economic Entomology 112, 2695-2702.

Maino J, Renton M, Hoffmann A, Umina PA (2019) Field margins provide a refuge for pest genes beneficial to resistance management. Journal of Pest Science 92, 1017-1026.

Cheng X, Umina P, Lee R, Hoffmann A (2019) Pyrethroid resistance in the pest mite, Halotydeus destructor: dominance patterns and a new method for resistance screening. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 159, 9-16.

Macfadyen S, Moradi M, Umina PA, Hoffmann AA, Nash M, Holloway J, Severtson D, Hill M, Van Helden M, Barton M (2019) Identifying critical research gaps that limit control options for invertebrate pests in Australian grain production systems. Austral Entomology 58, 9-26.

Umina PA, McDonald G, Maino J, Edwards O, Hoffmann AA (2019) Escalating insecticide resistance in Australian grain pests: contributing factors, industry trends and management opportunities. Pest Management Science 75, 1494-1506.

Cheng X, Hoffmann A, Maino J, Umina P (2019) Summer diapause intensity influenced by parental and offspring environmental conditions in the pest mite, Halotydeus destructor. Journal of Insect Physiology 114, 92-99.

Stuart O, Binns M, Umina P, Holloway J, Severtson D, Nash M, Heddle T, van Helden M, Hoffmann A (2019) Morphological and molecular analysis of Australian earwigs (Dermaptera) points to unique species and regional endemism in the Anisolabididae family. Insects 10, 72. doi: 10.3390/insects10030072

Bird L, Miles M, Umina P, et al. (2018) Resistance management strategy for Helicoverpa armigera in Australian grains. GRDC National Insecticide Resistance Management working group. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 4

Umina P, de Little S (2018) Insecticide resistance is outgunning our current weapons. Australian Grain 37-40.

Bellati J, Mangano P, Umina P, Henry K (2018) I SPY: Insects of Southern Australian Broadacre Farming Systems Identification Manual and Information Resource, 2nd Edition. Department of Primary Industries and Resources South Australia. ISBN: 978-0-6482692-1-2. Pp. 189.

Umina PA, Hoffmann A, et al. (2018) Resistance management strategy for the redlegged earth mite in Australian grains and pastures. GRDC National Insecticide Resistance Management working group. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 6.

Douglas J, Umina P, Macfadyen S, Hoffmann AA (2018) Field associations of first generation densities of the pest mites, Halotydeus destructor and Penthaleus major, in pasture. Experimental and Applied Acarology 76, 487-506.

Hill MP, Binns M, Umina PA, Hoffmann AA, Macfadyen S (2018) Climate, human influence and the distribution limits of the invasive European earwig, Forficula auricularia, in Australia. Pest Management Science 75, 134-143.

Kirkland L, Pirtle E, Umina P (2018) Responses of the Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) and bird cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) to insecticide seed treatments in wheat. Crop and Pasture Science 69, 966-973.

Cheng X, Hoffmann A, Maino J, Umina P (2018) A cryptic diapause strategy in Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Trombidiformes: Penthaleidae) induced by multiple cues. Pest Management Science 74, 2618-2625.

Cheng X, Umina P, Hoffmann A (2018) Influence of previous host plants on the reproductive success of a polyphagous mite pest, Halotydeus destructor. Journal of Economic Entomology 111, 680-688.

Edwards O, Walsh T, Metcalfe S, Tay W, Hoffmann A, Mangano P, Lord A, Micic S, Umina P (2018) A genomic approach to identify and monitor a novel pyrethroid resistance mutation in the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 144, 83-90.

Maino J, Binns M, Umina P (2018) No longer a west-side story – pesticide resistance discovered in the eastern range of a major Australian crop pest, Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae). Crop and Pasture Science 69, 216-221.

Maino J, Umina PA, Hoffmann A (2018) Climate contributes to the evolution of pesticide resistance. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27, 223-232.

Baker G, Umina P, et al. (2017) Resistance management strategy for diamondback moth in Australian canola. GRDC National Insecticide Resistance Management working group. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 4.

Umina P, Baker G, Edwards O (2017) Russian wheat aphid: tactics for future control. Grains Research and Development Corporation. ISBN: 978-1-921779-41-1. Pp. 40.

Douglas J, Hoffmann A, Macfadyen S, Umina P (2017) Crop seedling susceptibility to Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae) and Ommatoiulus moreletii (Diplopoda: Julidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 110, 2679-2685.

de Little SC, Umina P. (2017) Susceptibility of Australian Myzus persicae (Hemiptera:

Aphididae) to three recently registered insecticides: spirotetramat, cyantraniliprole, and sulfoxaflor. Journal of Economic Entomology 110, 1764-1769.

de Little SC, Edwards O, van Rooyen A, Weeks A, Umina P (2017) Discovery of metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids in green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) in Australia. Pest Management Science 73, 1611-1617.

Umina P, Lord A, Micic S, Edwards O (2017) Discovery and characterisation of field resistance to organophosphorus chemicals in a major mite pest, Halotydeus destructor. Pest Management Science 73, 1719-1724.

Clouston A, Edwards O, Umina PA. (2016) An insecticide baseline study of Australian broadacre aphids Crop and Pasture Science 67, 236-244.

Hill MP, Hoffmann AA, Umina PA, Cheng X, Miller AD (2016) Genetic analysis along an invasion pathway reveals endemic cryptic taxa, but a single species with little population structure in the introduced range. Diversity and Distributions 22, 57-72.

Umina P, Schiffer M, Parker P, Hoffmann A (2016) Distribution and influence of grazing on wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella Keifer) within a wheat field. Journal of Applied Entomology 140, 426-433.

Umina PA (2015). Australian grain growers facing new pest challenges. Australian Grain 24, 52.

Davidson J, Henry K, Kimber B, van Leur J, McCaffery D, Henry K, Trebicki P, Taylor S, Umina P (2015) Reducing aphid and virus risk. Grains Research and Development Corporation Tips and Tactics. Pp. 4.

Clouston A, Umina P (2015) Crop aphids: the back pocket guide. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 16.

Umina P, Jenkins S, McColl S, Arthur A, Hoffmann A (2015) A framework for identifying selective chemical applications for IPM in dryland agriculture. Insects 6, 988-1012.

McDonald G, Umina P, Macfadyen S, Mangano P, Hoffmann A (2015) Predicting the timing of first generation egg hatch for the pest redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acarina: Penthaleidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 65, 259-276.

Arthur A, Hoffmann A, Umina P (2015) Challenges in devising economic spray thresholds for a major pest of Australian canola, the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor). Pest Management Science  71, 1462-1470.

Umina PA, Edwards O, et al. (2014) Resistance Management Strategy for the green peach aphid in Australian grains. GRDC National Insecticide Resistance Management working group. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 4.

Umina PA, Edwards O, Carson P, van Rooyen A, Anderson A (2014) High levels of resistance to carbamate and pyrethroid chemicals widespread in Australian Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations. Journal of Economic Entomology 107, 1626-1638

Arthur A, Hoffmann A, Umina P (2014) Estimating densities of the pest redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor, in canola. Journal of Economic Entomology 107, 2204-2212.

Macfadyen S, Hardie D, Fagan L, Stefanova K, Perry K, DeGraaf H, Holloway J, Spafford H, Umina P (2014) Reducing insecticide use in broad-acre grains production: an Australian study. PLOS ONE 9, 1-13.

Umina P, Cribb M (2013) Crop weevils: the back pocket guide. Grains Research and Development Corporation. Pp. 16.

Arthur A, Hoffmann A, Umina P (2013) Impact of Halotydeus destructor on crop seedlings at different plant developmental stages and levels of moisture stress. Environmental Entomology 45, 998-1012.

Jenkins S, Hoffmann AA, McColl S, Tsitsilas A, Umina PA (2013) Synthetic pesticides in agro-ecosystems: are they as detrimental to nontarget invertebrate fauna as we suspect? Journal of Economic Entomology 106, 756-775.

Arthur AL, McColl S, Umina PA (2013) Synthetic pesticides show little efficacy against Balaustium medicagoense (Prostigmata: Erythraeidae) in the field compared with other pest mites. Australian Journal of Entomology 52, 259-267.

Umina PA (2012) Earth mite resistance marches on. Farming Ahead 244, 34-37.

Umina P (2012) Outsmarting those pesky pests. Farming Ahead 243, 24-26.

Hill MP, Elith J, Macfadyen S, Umina PA, Hoffmann AA (2012) Understanding niche shifts: using current and historical data to model the invasive redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor. Diversity and Distributions 18, 191-203.

Hill MP, Hoffmann AA, McColl SA, Umina PA (2012) Distribution of cryptic blue oat mite species (Penthaleus spp.) in Australia: current and future climate conditions. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 14, 127-137.

Miller AD, Umina PA, Weeks AR, Hoffmann AA (2012) Population genetics of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) in Australia – Implications for the management of wheat pathogens. Bulletin of Entomological Research 102, 199-212.

Umina PA, Weeks AR, Roberts J, Jenkins S, Mangano P, Lord A, Micic S (2012) The current status of pesticide resistance in Australian populations of the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor). Pest Management Science 68, 889-896.

Arthur A, Umina PA (2011) Clover mite. Victorian Department of Primary Industries Agricultural Note (AG1433). 

Umina PA, Edwards O, Micic M (2011) Mapping resistance to limit its spread. Farming Ahead 236, 66-67.

McColl SA, Khan M, Umina PA (2011) Review of the biology and control of Creontiades dilutus (Stal) (Hemiptera: Miridae). Australian Journal of Entomology 50, 107-117.

Roberts JMK, Weeks AR, Hoffmann AA, Umina P (2011) Does Bdellodes lapidaria (Acari: Bdellidae) have a role in biological control of the springtail pest, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in south-eastern Australia? Biological Control 58, 222-229.

Roberts JMK, Umina PA, Hoffmann AA, Weeks AR (2011) Population dynamics and diapause response of the springtail pest, Sminthurus viridis (Collembola: Sminthuridae), in south-eastern Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology 104, 465-473.

Tsitsilas A, Hoffmann AA, Weeks AR, Umina PA (2011) Impact of groundcover manipulations within windbreaks on mite pests and their natural enemies. Australian Journal of Entomology 50, 37-47.

Arthur A, Umina PA (2010) Balaustium mite. Victorian Department of Primary Industries Agricultural Note (AG1413).

Mangano P, Bellati J, Henry K, Umina P, Severtson D (2010) PestFax and PestFacts – newsletters successfully facilitating interactive communication on invertebrate pest and disease control in broadscale crops and pastures in southern Australia. Extension Farming Systems Journal 5, 169-174.

Bellati J, Henry K, Umina P, Charleston K, Mangano P, Brier H, Severtson D, A McLennan (2010) From boring bug lectures to interactive invertebrate learning – using audience participation software to ‘actively’ transform grains industry training. Extension Farming Systems Journal 5, 175-180.

Bellati J, Mangano P, Umina P, Henry K (2010) I SPY: Insects of Southern Australian Broadacre Farming Systems Identification Manual and Information Resource. 1st Edition. Department of Primary Industries and Resources South Australia. ISBN: 978-0-646-53795-5. Pp. 178.

Arthur AL, Weeks AR, Umina PA, Hoffmann AA (2010) Survival and reproduction of the pest mites Balaustium medicagoense and Bryobia spp. on winter grain crops. Experimental and Applied Acarology 52, 141-153.

Furlan E, Umina PA, Mitrovski PJ, Gust N, Griffiths J, Weeks AR (2010) High levels of genetic divergence between Tasmanian and Victorian platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, as revealed by microsatellite loci. Conservation Genetics 11, 319-323.

Herbert KS, Umina PA, Mitrovski PJ, Powell KS, Viduka K, Hoffmann AA (2010) Clone lineages of grape phylloxera differ in their performance on Vitis Vinifera. Bulletin of Entomological Research 100, 671-678.

Umina PA, Arthur AA, McColl SA, Hoffmann AA, Roberts JMK (2010) Selective control of mite and collembolan pests of pastures and grain crops in Australia. Crop Protection 29, 190-196.

Umina PA, Bellati J, Henry K (2009) Strategic control of insect pests. Australian Grain 19, 1-4.

Carew M, Schiffer M, Umina PA, Weeks A, Hoffmann A (2009) Molecular markers indicate that the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer may represent a species complex in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 99, 479-486.

Roberts JMK, Umina PA, Hoffmann AA, Weeks AR (2009) The tolerance of the lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis, to currently registered pesticides in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 48, 241-246.

Schiffer M, Umina PA, Carew M, Hoffmann AA, Rodoni B, Miller A (2009) The distribution of wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) lineages in Australia and their potential to transmit wheat streak mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology 155, 371-379.

Bellati J, Umina PA, Wurst M and Henry K (2008) Crop Insects: the Ute Guide (Southern Grain Belt Edition). Rural Solutions, Adelaide. ISBN 978-1-921399-11-4. Pp. 191

Roberts J, Umina P (2008) Time to get smart with control strategies. Australian Farm Journal 17, 45-47.

Roberts J, Umina PA (2008) Lucerne flea. Victorian Department of Primary Industries Agricultural Note (AG0415).

Arthur AL, Hoffmann AA, Umina PA, Weeks AR (2008) Tolerance of emerging pests of grains, Balaustium medicagoense and Bryobia spp., to currently registered pesticides. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1126-1132.

Hoffmann AA, Weeks AR, Nash M, Mangano GP, Umina P (2008) The changing status of invertebrate pests and the future of pest management in the grains industry. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1481-1493.

Micic S, Strickland G, Weeks A, Hoffmann A, Nash M, Henry K, Bellati J, Umina P (2008) Pests of establishing crops in southern Australia: a review of their biology and management options. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1560-1573.

Paoletti MG, Tsitsilas A, Thomson LJ, Taiti S, Umina PA (2008) The flood bug, Australiodillo bifrons (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae): a potential pest of cereals in Australia? Applied Soil Ecology 39, 76-83.

Ridsdill-Smith J, Hoffmann A, Mangano P, Gower JM, Pavri C, Umina P (2008) Review of strategies for control of the redlegged earth mite in Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 1506-1513.

Tsitsilas A, Umina PA (2007) A potential new pest of cereals: the ‘flood bug’. Australian Grain 17, 9-11.

Umina PA, Schiffer M (2007) Pest mite raises curly questions. Australian Farm Journal 16, 42-43.

Umina PA (2007) Resistance threatens to derail redlegged earth mite control. Farming Ahead 184, 47-49.

Umina PA (2007) Blue oat mite. Victorian Department of Primary Industries Agricultural Note (AG1300).

Umina PA (2007) Beneficials: how to get nature on side. Grains Business 21, 14-16.

Umina PA, Corrie AM, Herbert KS, White VL, Powell KS, Hoffmann AA (2007) The use of DNA markers for pest management: clonal lineages and population biology of grape phylloxera. Acta Horticulturae 733, 183-195.

Umina PA (2007) Pyrethroid resistance discovered in a major agricultural pest in southern Australia: the redlegged earth mite (Acari: Penthaleidae). Pest Management Science 63, 1185-1190.

Umina PA, Nash M, Arthur A (2006) Know your pest for better control. Farming Ahead 176, 123-125.

Umina PA (2006) The redlegged earth mite. Victorian Department of Primary Industries Agricultural Note (AG0414). 

Umina PA, Jennings G (2006) Chemical tolerance complicates pest control. Grains Business 17, 14-17.

Umina PA, Weeks AR, Hoffmann AA, McKechnie SW (2006) An independent non-linear latitudinal cline for the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (a-Gpdh) polymorphism of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Genetical Research 87, 13-21.

Anderson AR, Hoffmann AA, McKechnie SW, Umina PA, Weeks AR (2005) The latitudinal cline in the In(3R)Payne inversion polymorphism has shifted in the last 20 years in Australian Drosophila melanogaster populations. Molecular Ecology 14, 851-858.

Umina PA, Hoffmann AA (2005) Competitive interactions among four pest species of earth mites (Acari: Penthaleidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 98, 307-316.

Umina PA, Weeks AR, Kearney MR, McKechnie SW, Hoffmann AA (2005) A rapid shift in a classic clinal pattern in Drosophila reflecting climate change. Science 308, 691-693.

Umina PA, Weeks AR (2004) Integrated strategies could end earth mite plague. Farming Ahead 153, 58-59.

Umina PA, Hoffmann AA (2004) Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management. Experimental and Applied Acarology 33, 1-20.

Umina PA, Hoffmann AA, Weeks AR (2004) Biology, ecology and control of the Penthaleus species complex (Acari: Penthaleidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 34, 211-237.

Umina PA, Weeks AR, Hoffmann AA (2003) Identify the mite to get the spray right. Farming Ahead 137, 46-48.

Umina PA, Hoffmann AA (2003) Diapause and implications for control of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) in south-eastern Australia. Experimental and Applied Acarology 31, 209-223.

Umina PA, Robinson MT, Hoffmann AA (2001) Correct identification critical for mite control. Farming Ahead 116, 37-38.

Umina PA, Hoffmann AA (1999) Tolerance of cryptic species of blue oat mites (Penthaleus spp.) and the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) to pesticides. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39, 621-628.